Genetic variation and bottleneck in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) strains using twelve microsatellite markers
The genetic structure of four strains of Japanese quail (Pharach, Panda, Tuxedo and Golden) was investigated by 12 microsatellite markers in Iran. Whole blood samples were collected from 200 individuals belonging to four strains and genomic DNA was extracted by salting out procedure. The 12 microsatellite markers were amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results indicated that the average heterozygosity between strains ranged from 0.4343 to 0.7902. The Chi-square and likelihood ratio test performed to examine strains for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium showed some highly significant deviations from deficiency. FIS value, which indicates the degree of departure from random mating, was particularly high in the four strains when compared to that of other breeds, indicating heterozygosity deficiency. Maximum Nei’s genetic distance was observed between Tuxedo and Golden strains; whereas the minimum Nei’s genetic distance was observed between Pharach and Tuxedo strains. Tuxedo strain revealed bottleneck event under three models of microsatellite evolution for sign, standardized differences and Wilcoxon sign rank tests. The power of the microsatellite marker as a useful tool for evaluating genetic variation within and between Japanese quail strains was also noted.
Key word: Bottleneck, genetic distance, genetic variation, microsatellite, Japanese quail.