Assessing hydroaeroponic culture for the tripartite symbiosis of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia
Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia that fix atmospheric dinitrogen (N2), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that improve the uptake of low mobile soil nutrients such as phosphorus. Both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses can benefit plants synergistically. The tripartite symbiosis of mungbean with rhizobia and AMF was assessed in hydroaeroponic culture under sufficient versus deficient P supplies (250 versus 75 μmol P plant-1 week-1) by comparing the effects of three AMF species on the mycorrhizal root colonization, rhizobial nodulation, and plant growth. Although, Glomus intraradices colonized well the roots of mungbean in sand and hydroaeroponic cultures, Gigaspora rosea only established well under sand culture conditions, and Acaulospora mellea weakly colonized roots under both culture conditions. Though significant differences of mungbean growth were found with different AMF species in sand, only few differences were observed in hydroaeroponic cultures. It is argued that the later will probably be a valuable tool for scrutinizing the interactions among the three symbionts, as well as plant physiology, and nutrient partitioning within the symbiotic system.
Key words: Acaulospora mellea, arbuscular mycorrhizal, Bradyrhizobium, Gigaspora rosea, Glomus intraradices, mungbean, phosphorus, symbiotic nitrogen fixation.