Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. collected in Syria
The essential oils of Salvia officinalis L. collected at two different altitudes in Syrian coastline were analyzed by gas chromatography. Plant’s development stage and the ecological factors had impact on the qualitative composition of S. officinalis essential oil. Although, the major components of the essential oils extracted from plants grown at both altitudes were 1,8-cineol, camphor, borneol, α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, β-myrcene and caryophyllene, their percentage changed according to the altitude. S. officinalis essential oil was for its antibacterial activities by using Gram- positive and negative bacteria. Both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus group D were efficiently inhibited after 10 min of contact at oil concentration of 20 μl/ml. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on Candida albicans was total and definitive within a minimum of contact time and oil concentration. But the essential oil showed a temporary bacteriostatic effect on Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, as well as Pseudomonas aeruoginosa. In comparison with most known antibiotics, the efficiency of S. officinalis essential oil was much better, especially against bacteria resistant to antibiotic.
Key words: Essential oil, Salvia officinalis L., antibacterial activities, inhibitory effect, bacteriostatic effect.