Thidiazuron: A multi-dimensional plant growth regulator
Thidiazuron (TDZ) has gained a considerable attention during past decades due to its efficient role in plant cell and tissue culture. Wide array of physiological responses were observed in response to TDZapplication in different plant species. TDZ has shown both auxin and cytokinin like effects, although, chemically, it is totally different from commonly used auxins and cytokinins. A number of biological (physiological and biochemical) events in cells are induced or enhanced by TDZ, but the mode of action of TDZ is yet unknown. However, varieties of underlying mechanisms were revealed by reports showing how morphogenic events were induced by application of TDZ. Other reports showed that TDZ may modify endogenous plant growth regulators, either directly or indirectly and produce reactions in cell/tissue, necessary for its division/regeneration. Other possibilities include modification in cell membrane, energy levels, nutrient absorption, transport and assimilation, etc. In this review, recent advancements in TDZ application in plant sciences are discussed.
Key words: Thidiazuron, plant growth regulators, somatic embryogenesis, regeneration, cell cultures, metabolism.