Water quality index development using fuzzy logic: A case study of the Karoon River of Iran
Determination of the status of water quality of a river or any other water source is highly indeterminate. It is necessary to have a competent model to predict the status of water quality and to show the type of water treatment that would be used to meet different demands. By exploring the behavior and limitations of conventional methods for quality evaluation, a better overall index for water quality in Iran and its application in Karoon River is proposed. Six variables are employed for the quality assessment. Numerical scales relating to the degree of quality are established for each variable to assess variations in quality and to convey findings in a comprehensive manner. The unit operates in a fuzzy logic mode including a fuzzification engine receiving a plurality of input variables on its input and being adapted to compute membership function parameters. A processor engine connected downstream of the fuzzification unit will produce fuzzy set, based on fuzzy variable namely dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, nitrate, fecal coliform and pH. It has a defuzzification unit which operates to translate the inference results into a discrete crisp value of water quality index. The development of the fuzzy model with one river system is explained in this paper. Water quality index in most countries is only referring to physico-chemical parameters due to great efforts needed to quantify the biological parameters. This study ensures a better method to include special parameters into water quality index due to superior capabilities of fuzzy logic in dealing with non-linear, complex and uncertain systems.
Key words: Water quality index, fuzzification, monitoring, inference system.