Phalaris minor control, resistance development and strategies for integrated management of resistance to fenoxaprop-ethyl
Phalaris minor (Littleseed canary grass) is a very important and annual weed of winter cereal crops. It is a very competitive weed of wheat, oat and barley crops in Pakistan. Usually, three aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, diclofop-methyl and clodinafop-propargyl are used as chemical weed control against different grassy weeds like P. minor, Avena sativa and Cyperus rotundus L. This review describes fenoxaprop-ethyl, a selective chemical herbicide used to control P. minor in wheat crop. High production of wheat is associated with its continuous use. But this practice enhances the development of resistant biotypes of P. minor. Different management approaches like preference of mechanical weeding over chemical weed control, integration of competitive varietal selection, crop rotation and herbicide rotation can be long duration strategies of resistance management in P. minor. However, tillage method, planting time, method of herbicide application, optimum dose, higher seed rate, early sowing, bed planting, stale seed bed and zero tillage are short duration resistance management strategies. Use of water extracts of herbicidal potential (allelopathic) plants can be effective integrated management of herbicide resistant against P. minor in wheat and for eco-friendly and sustainable weed management.
Key words: Control, fenoxaprop-ethyl, management, Phalaris minor, resistance, wheat.