Biotransformation of indigo carmine to isatin sulfonic acid by lyophilized mycelia from Trametes versicolor
Indigo carmine (IC) was biotrasformed to 5-isatinsulfonic acid using intracellular and associated enzymes from Trametes versicolor lyophilized mycelia; even when extracellular enzymes were absent, in high concentration solutions of IC (4 000 mg L-1) and non-sterile condition. T. versicolor was grown in wheat strew and malt extract liquid medium and harvested during the stationary growth phase, it was lyophilized and made to react with indigo carmine. Experimental series were performed at different IC concentrations (from 100 to 4000 mg L-1). Color removal was 99.90, 98.75, 88.35, 79.47, 70.0 and 40.35% for 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg L-1 of IC, respectively after 120 h with exception for 100 mg L-1 of IC, which reached total color removal after 1 h. Reacted mixture byproducts were separated by column chromatography. IC biotransformation to 5-isatinsulfonic acid was confirmed by HPLC, UV-VIS, FT- IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Activity of laccase from lyophilized mycelia was conserved after one year at 4°C. Dehydrated biological material in colorant biodegradation is a new method which allows obtaining high discoloration efficiencies. Lyophilized mycelia could be more stable than traditionally used wet biomass or liquid culture for biodegradation of color dye.
Key words: Biodegradation, indigo carmine, Trametes versicolor.