Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter jejuni and coli isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic goat faeces in Venda region, South Africa
A total of 200 freshly voided goat faeces samples were collected in the study and were examined for the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. The samples were obtained randomly from 2 farm settlements in Venda region, South Africa in 2008 to 2009. All samples were analyzed with the mCCDA media with Campylobacter supplement in microaerophilic condition provided by the Campygen gas envelope (Oxoid). Of the total 200 samples, the recovery rate was 29% (58 of 200) for all samples. Of the 200 samples, 155 (77.5%) were non-diarrheic and 45 (22.5%) were diarrheic faeces. From the 45 diarrheic faces, 41 (91.1%) were positive for campylobacters and of the 155 non-diarrheic faeces, 17 (11.1%) were positive for campylobacters. In all, 58 Campylobacter species comprising 33 (56.9%) Campylobacter jejuni and 8 (13.9%) Campylobacter coli strains were from diarrheic and 2 (3.4%) C. jejuni and 15 (25.9%) C. coli were from non-diarrheic faeces. There was no statistical correlation between the incidence of C. jejuni in diarrheic faeces and non-diarrheic faeces. Rate of resistance of C. jejuni and C. coli to six regularly used antibiotics in human and veterinary campylobacteriosis; ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, ampicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid and erythromycin were 40.0, 47.1%, 57.1, 43.5%, 48.6, 56.5%, 42.9, 43.5%, 34.3, 34.5% and 14.3, 17.4%, respectively. In comparison, a significantly higher frequency of resistance to gentamycin was recorded among the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates (57.1 versus 43.5%) respectively, at p < 0.005 from goats in all farms. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and kanamycin was higher among the C. coli than C. jejuni strains but the difference was not statistically significant. Comparable occurrences of resistance were observed among C. jejuni and C. coli to erythromycin and nalidixic acid. High prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in goat could be of public health significance in the Venda region. The observed multi-drug resistance and especially resistance to macrolides and fluoroquinolones in this study pose a threat of transfer of antibiotic resistance to human pathogens because of the close contact between goats and man.
Key words: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, microaerophilic, veterinary campylobacteriosis, fluoroquinolones, Venda region