In vitro antifungal activity of 63 Iranian plant species against three different plant pathogenic fungi
Crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of 63 plant species belonging to 23 families collected from the west of Iran were screened for antifungal activity against three economically important phytopathogenic fungi, Cochliobolus sativus, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. Bioassay of extract was conducted by paper disc diffusion method on agar plate cultures with four replications. 21 of the 63 (33%) plant species showed inhibitory activity against at least one of the fungi. 16 (25%), 10 (16%) and 16 (25%) tested plant species inhibited the mycelial growth of R. solani, F. oxysporum and C. sativus, respectively. Centaurea behen, Lavandula sp., roots of Tribulus terrestris were the most active plant species against R. solani, F. oxysporum, and C. sativus, respectively. Extracts of I and T. terrestris exhibited a broad-spectrum of antifungal activity. According to these results, we conclude that the flora in the west of Iran can be regarded as a rich source of plants with antifungal activity. Therefore, further screening of other plant species, identifying active fractions or metabolites and in vivo application of active extracts are warranted.
Key words: Antifungal activity, crude extract, Iranian plants, paper disc, phytopathogenic fungi.