Fusarium diseases as the main soil borne fungal pathogen on plants and their control management with soil solarization in Iran
The most frequently soil-borne fungal pathogens on plants are Fusarium species that make high economical damages in various agricultural locations in Iran. Our studies show that Fusarium species cause significant yield losses in main crops especially potato, pea, bean, wheat, corn and rice in several parts of the country. The diseases resulted in yield losses to the extent of 30 to 70% in the fields and made economical problems for growers. Infected plants were collected and cultured on common medium; potato dextrose agar (PDA) and selective media [peptone pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar (PPA), and carnation leaf agar (CLA)] for Fusarium species, and then isolated species were identified. The dominant species were F. solani, F. oxysporum, F. pseudograminearum, F. moniliforme and F. sambucinum in the area studied. Soil solarization method was carried at the summer season in three soil infested locations to assess the control management of the pathogens. Application of this method reduced population density of the pathogen from 1833 to 500, 266, and 100 CFU g -1/soil after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The method was simple, effective, non negative side and applicable in diverse farming areas at warm season.
Key words: Fusarium, diseases, yield losses, soil solarization.