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African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

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Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infections among blood donors in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

C.M. Ezeonu, S.A. Garba, N.U. Adabara, F.A. Kuta

Abstract


Background: Transfusion of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected blood represents a major but avoidable means of HBV transmission, which unfortunately still account for millions of global HBV infections annually.

Method: This study determined the prevalence of HBV infection among 550 blood donors aged 18 to 60 years from selected hospitals and blood transfusion centres within the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria, using hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit and Enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent Assay (ELISA). Representative positive and negative samples for RDT and ELISA were tested by both conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay

Results: Forty nine (8.9%) and 14 (2.8%) out of the 550 blood donors tested positive for HBsAg with the RDT and ELISA respectively. Replacement donors had higher prevalence rate of the HBV infection than voluntary donors. The highest prevalence of HBV infection was recorded among the 30–39 year age group. The difference in the rate of infection between the males and the females was not statistically significant (p>0.05). A perfect agreement between RDT and PCR and fair agreement between ELISA and PCR were observed.

Conclusion: This study report a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infections among blood donors in Abuja, Nigeria which underscores the need for proper screening of blood for transfusion to completely eliminate the incidence of transfusion transmitted HBV infections.

Keywords: Blood, Malaria, Hepatitis, Rapid, Immuno-sorbent, Polymerase




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