Review Article: Yellow fever in Nigeria: A review of the current situation
Several African countries including Nigeria have been battling with public health challenges for decades. Nigeria is currently facing several public health emergencies including cholera, circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus infection, cerebrospinal meningitis, monkey pox, measles, Lassa fever, and Yellow fever outbreaks in some states, as well as a humanitarian crisis in the northeast region of the country. Sporadic outbreaks of Yellow fever have been occurring in the country since September 2017 involving all thirty six states of the Federation, resulting in about 90 deaths (case fatality rate of 2.2%) and 31 deaths among confirmed cases (case fatality rate of 19.0%). Although, there is currently no specific treatment for Yellow fever, vaccination with the Yellow fever vaccine provides life-long protection, and is the most important means of preventing the disease. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, the re-emergence of Yellow fever is directly correlated with its continuous dissemination in several countries to date. Timely detection of Yellow fever and rapid response through emergency vaccination campaigns are essential for controlling outbreaks. Vector surveillance and control are important components of reducing transmission in epidemic situations. This review attempts to provide update information on the current situation of Yellow fever in Nigeria with highlights on the history, pathogenesis and diagnosis of the disease.
Key words: Yellow fever, Nigeria, Outbreaks, Mosquitoes