Spatial dynamic of mobile dunes, soil crusting and Yobe’s bank retreat in the Niger’s Lake Chad basin part: Cases of Issari and Bagara
The process of desertification is accelerated in the northern part of Lake Chad basin since the early 1970. Those processes linked to the recurrent drought and a heavy human pressure induced a great environmental damages. So this study based on diachronic cartography (1957, 1975 and 2007) aimed to describe and quantify the degradation dynamics in the contrasting Niger’s Lake Chad basin part. Thus significant environmental changes have been observed in this area from 1957 to 2007. Indeed in the Manga, the natural commodities and fields were threatened by mobile dunes making blocking with sand: the mobile dunes spread from ~200 ha in 1975 to ~900 ha in 2007 while they had not watched in 1957. In the fluvio-deltaic area of Kadzell, the soil crusting and the Yobe River retreat remain the major damages. The crusting area has been multiplied by more than two while the lateral migration of the Yobe bank reached near of 3 m.yr-1. This study highlights the key role of man in the process of degradation related to climate parameters
Key words: Lake Chad, degradation dynamics, soil crusting, dunes, human activities.