Effect of discharges from re-channeled rivers and municipal runoff on water quality of Opa reservoir, Ile- Ife, Southwest Nigeria
Over the years, there is a direct linkage of township drains and streams to the Opa reservoir, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. Hence the spatial and temporal variations of the reservoir’s water quality were studied between November 2012 and October 2013 to investigate the effect of these discharges on these. Physical, chemical as well as the oxygen parameters of the water were investigated using standard techniques. The parameters determined revealed considerable temporal variations with the rainy season averaged concentration of COD, TOC, OM, TSS, TS, turbidity, apparent colour, true colour, sodium, and phosphate significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the dry season. Spatially, DO, TSS,TS, organic matter and TOC decreased significantly (p<0.05) from riverine to the lacustrine (dam site). However, calcium, sulphate, and electrical conductivity showed significant increases (p<0.05) from the riverine zone section towards the dam site. Vertically, sulphate, bicarbonate, COD, TOC, chloride, TSS, TS, turbidity, apparent colour, true colour and sodium ion values increased significantly (p<0.05) from the surface down to the bottom. Conversely, magnesium, total hardness, nitrate, BOD, DO, electrical conductivity, acidity, carbonate, alkalinity, TDS and pH values decreased (p<0.05) from water surface to the bottom of the reservoir. Therefore, the discharges from the catchment area of Opa reservoir could pose a level of risk to the aquatic ecosystem as well as the community if not well treated before being supplied.
Key words: Spatial, temporal, water quality, zones, risk level, source.