Groundwater chemistry and quality of Nigeria: A status review

  • A Edet
  • Tn Nganje
  • AJ Ukpong
  • AS Ekwere


The present work is a review on the quality characteristics of groundwater in Nigeria. The aim was to collate, synthesize and analyse hydrochemical data from available literature in order to evaluate the physical and chemical character, quality and determine the sources of ions. The review process covered four major groundwater sedimentary basins viz Benin, Benue, Niger Delta, Sokoto and the Crystalline Basement Complexes. The issue of saline groundwater in parts of Benue and Niger Delta Basins were given attention. In general, data show that on the average, TDS for the groundwater from the different basins was < 250 mg/l compared to the saline groundwater with average TDS as high as 15700 mg/l. The high salinity was attributed to dissolution of salts and seawater intrusion. Nitrate concentration on the average is high especially, for Sokoto Basin indicating anthropogenic pollution. Descriptive and multivariate statistics together with cross plots indicate that the major geologic controls on the groundwater chemistry are chloride dissolution, weathering (silicate and carbonate) and ion exchange. With respect to agricultural and irrigation purposes, the groundwater are excellent besides the water from the saline groundwater from Benue Basin and the coastal aquifers.

Keywords: Groundwater, chemistry, quality, Nigeria.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1996-0786
print ISSN: 1996-0786