Evaluation of physico-chemical and microbial parameters on water quality of Narmada River, India
The present study was carried out to ascertain the quality of water at western zone of Narmada River of Madhya Pradesh (India). Due to heavy discharge of harmful and deleterious substances in river, the biological, chemical and physical characteristics of water have changed to a considerable extent. The objectives of this study were to find out the changes in physico-chemical nature as well as biological health of Narmada River. A thorough study was done on the basis of prevailing seasons. The deterioration of water quality was noticed at lower site of water body in a particular season as low temperature, dissolved oxygen and higher concentration of content of chlorine, etc., all pointing towards the nutrient enrichment. This evaluation will be immensely helpful to estimate the effect of impoundments on the quality of water, fisheries development and reservoir management policy. The microbial analysis was also conducted in terms of most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms in water sample and its highest value (1239) was reported from downstream of Omkareshwar dam site of Narmada River. Water quality index of all sites of Narmada River was calculated for three seasons, viz. summer, monsoon and winter and it was found to be highest (123) at Koteshwar dam site of river in monsoon season and the lowest (70) was observed in water of upstream of Omkareshwar dam during winter. The suitable correlation coefficients were calculated for 7 pairs of variables and correlation matrices were then established seasonally.
Key words: Impoundments, water quality index, dissolved oxygen, most probable number