Unusual rainfall shift during monsoon period of 2010 in Pakistan: Flash flooding in Northern Pakistan and riverine flooding in Southern Pakistan
Floods due to “blocking event” in the jet stream during 2010 caused intense rainfall and flash floods in northern Pakistan which resulted to riverine flooding in southern Pakistan. In the beginning of July 2010, changes in summer monsoon rainfall patterns caused the most severe flooding in Pakistan history. Process control charts suggest that monsoon pattern was not normal which made one-fifth of the country to be inundated. In this study, our main concern was to check the upward shifts (floods) in the rainfall pattern of all provinces of Pakistan. Results indicate that there was significant and sudden shift in the rainfall pattern of monsoon in 2010 which might be due to prolong “blocking event” in the jet stream. In late July, rainwater from the highlands entered major rivers which affected nearby areas of the Indus River. More than 250 mm of rain fell over a 36-h period in late July. Abeyant policies by the Pakistan Irrigation Department (PID) caused destruction in Jacobabad which was not a normal Indus waterway. The first week of August marked the worst week of extreme flooding in southern Pakistan. Flood simulation overylay technique showed the affected areas of the country in comparison with normal waterways by using vector and raster data images.
Key words: Indus River, monsoon, flooding in 2010, rainfall pattern, Climate Change, Floods.