African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology

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Sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron on the plasma electrolytes regulation of mice, Mus Musculus

FI Osuala, AA Otitoloju, MN Igwo-Ezikpe


The toxicological evaluations of cadmium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc were carried out against albino mice model, Mus musculus. On the basis of 96 hrLC50 value, cadmium (0.47 mM) was found to be the most toxic followed by zinc (2.40 mM), lead (2.42 mM), iron (4.25 mM) and manganese (5.70 mM) was least toxic. This study also evaluated the sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron in plasma samples utilising plasma electrolyte parameters as a biomarker using an albino mice model, M. musculus. Mice were subjected to sublethal concentrations of the selected heavy metals (1/10th of 96 hrLC50). Blood plasma was collected after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in long term experiment. Sodium (Na+), potassium (k+), chloride (Cl-) ions bicarbonates (HCO3-), calcium (Ca2+) and phosphates (P043-). Studies on the effect of heavy metals on plasma electrolytes revealed that Pb caused elevated level of sodium (Na+), while Cd induced significant (P < 0.05) increase in potassium (k+) and chloride (Cl-) ions in treated mice groups. In addition, bicarbonates (HCO3-) and phosphates (P043-) levels increasedsignificantly (P < 0.05) in treated mice exposed to Mn and Fe, respectively. The outcome of this study implied that heavy metals have toxic effects and plasma electrolyte is a useful tool for early detection and diagnosis of heavy metals pollution in the mammalian model.

Key words: Electrolyte, blood plasma, heavy metals, Mus musculus

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