Some risk factors associated with acid-alcohol-fast bacilli in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Jos, central Nigeria
Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a very serious public health problem due to its high tendency of person to person transmission,
morbidity, and mortality. This study aimed at determining some risk factors associated with the prevalence of acid-alcohol-fast-bacilli (AAFB) within the study area.
Materials and Methods: Sputum samples were collected from three hundred and three (303) patients with suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in Jos. The samples were examined using Ziehl Neelson method. Structured questionnaires were administered to obtain some demographic data from patients that consented. Results were tested statistically for significance at p < 0.05 using Chi-square test.
Results: Out of the samples examined, 29 (9.60%), were positive for AAFB. The study showed that the prevalence of smear-positive increased with increase in number of persons sharing the same room. Statistically the study reveals that some risk factors such as alcoholism, cigarette smoking and number of persons staying in a household had a significant effects on the prevalence (p < 0.05),while HIV status had no significant effect on the
prevalence (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: There was high prevalence of AAFB in the study area especially among people living in poor/congested housing facilities and people with HIV/AIDS. This calls for more collaborative efforts and political will by government and non-governmental agencies in order to eradicate the
infection rate within the area, and the country at large.
Key words: Risks factors, pulmonary tuberculosis.