Atypical extensive genital ulcer in full blown aids with slim disease
Background: Atypical and exceptional clinical presentation of full blown AIDS may be observed in sub-Saharan Africa. We report herein the case of a Central African 37-year-old male patient presented with full blown AIDS, a typical picture of slim disease with marked cachexia and wasting faces. In addition, the patient was suffering from very extensive genital ulcer with complete loss of substance of the genitalia.
Methods: Extensive histological and microbiological analysis of the genital lesion was carried out.
Results: HIV-1 serology was positive, the HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load was 5.3 log copies/ml and CD4 T cell count was 1 per μL. Search for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum and urine was negative by direct microscopic examination with Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Testing for syphilis serology was negative. Direct immunofluorescence detection on genital ulcer scraping was negative for Chlamydia trachomatis and Treponema pallidum. Furthermore, the infections with Haemophilus ducreyi and Chlamydia trachomatis were excluded by PCR on genital swabs.Genital PCR was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2. Marked improvement was observed within 6 weeks after starting empirical therapy including first-line antiretroviral therapy, cotrimoxazole, doxycycline and valacyclovir, with progressive healing of genital ulcer and negativity of HSV PCR.
Conclusion: Taken together, the extensive genital ulcer in this patient is likely the result of a multifactorial process, involving both profound cellular immune depression and complex genital infectious process in which herpetic infection may have participated as a chronic worsening co-factor.
Key words: Slim disease, HIV, Extensive genital ulcer, Herpes simplex virus type 2.