Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing gram negative bacteria in Iran: a review
Background: The emergence and spread of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram- negative bacteria (GNB), particularly in Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have increased all over the world. ESBLs are characterized by their ability to hydrolyze β-lactams, early cephalosporins, oxyimino-thiazolyl cephalosporins, and monobactams, but not cephamycins or carbapenems. The rate of nosocomial infections caused by ESBL-producing GNB in Asia Pacific has increased and several studies have identified their prevalence in the region. The aim of this study is to review the prevalence of ESBL-producing GNB in the West Asia and the Middle East with a particular focus on Iran.
Materials and Methods: The available evidence from various studies (Microbia and clinical studies, retrieved from the PubMed, and Scopus databases) regarding the ESBL producing Gram negative bacteria in Iran were evaluated.
Results: In almost all parts of the country, high resistance has been observed, especially in the central part of Iran. Up to 89.8% Escherichia coli, 72.1% Klebsiella pneumonia, 84.2% Acinetobacter baumannii, and 83.8% Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates are ESBL positive.
Conclusion: The present study showed the increasing prevalence of ESBLs in different regions of Iran, which could be useful to strategic policy towards reducing reduce their prevalence.
Keywords: extended-spectrum β-lactamase; antibiotic resistance; Acinetobacter baumannii; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Iran.