Prevalence and pattern of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract at the University Of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria
Background: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) remain a major cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children.
Methods: A retrospective review of children aged 1 month to 15 years at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria, from January 2017 to December 2020.
Results: A total of 10,071 children were seen, of which 342 were renal cases (a prevalence of 3.2%), and 33 were CAKUT (a prevalence of 0.3% per paediatric cases, and 10.1% of renal cases). The CAKUT comprised 25 males (75.8%) with a male-to-female ratio of 3.1: 1, and a mean age of 4.7 ± 4.1 years. The commonest CAKUT was posterior urethral valve-PUV (14/33, 42.4%) followed by pelvic-ureteric junction obstruction-PUJO (7; 21.2%), multicystic dysplastic kidney (5; 15.2%), ectopic kidney (4; 12.1%), left duplex kidneys (2; 6.1%) and one (3%) right simple renal cyst. Prenatal diagnosis was in 4 of the 33 cases (12.1%). Fifteen of the CAKUT (45%) presented with elevated creatinine. Mortality was recorded in 3 cases (9.1%) from sepsis/uraemia.
Conclusion: PUV and PUJO are the leading types of CAKUT in this study. Mortality from CAKUT would be minimized if fetal ultrasonography detects more cases earlier before renal deterioration ensues.