Prevalence and pattern of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract at the University Of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

  • E.A. Anigilaje
  • O.H. Ajibola
  • I. Ishola
Keywords: Children, Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tracts, Abuja, Nigeria.


Background: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) remain a major cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children.

Methods: A retrospective review of children aged 1 month to 15 years at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria, from January 2017 to December 2020.

Results: A total of 10,071 children were seen, of which 342 were renal cases (a prevalence of 3.2%), and 33 were CAKUT (a prevalence of 0.3% per paediatric cases, and 10.1% of renal cases). The CAKUT comprised 25 males (75.8%) with a male-to-female ratio of 3.1: 1, and a mean age of 4.7 ± 4.1 years. The commonest CAKUT was posterior urethral valve-PUV (14/33, 42.4%) followed by pelvic-ureteric junction obstruction-PUJO (7; 21.2%), multicystic dysplastic kidney (5; 15.2%), ectopic kidney (4; 12.1%), left duplex kidneys (2; 6.1%) and one (3%) right simple renal cyst. Prenatal diagnosis was in 4 of the 33 cases (12.1%). Fifteen of the CAKUT (45%) presented with elevated creatinine. Mortality was recorded in 3 cases (9.1%) from sepsis/uraemia.

Conclusion: PUV and PUJO are the leading types of CAKUT in this study. Mortality from CAKUT would be minimized if fetal ultrasonography detects more cases earlier before renal deterioration ensues. 


Journal Identifiers

print ISSN: 2354-4325