Comparing the analgesic effect of caudal and ilioinguinal iliohypogastric nerve blockade using bupivacaine-clonidine in inguinal surgeries in children 2-7 years old
Background: We compared the analgesic effects of caudal and ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block using bupivacaine-clonidine performed in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. The ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block provides excellent pain relief for operations on the inguinal region, including emergency procedures (e.g. strangulated inguinal hernia with intestinal obstruction). It should be preferred to caudal block for these procedures.
Materials and Methods: After local ethics committee approval and written parental consent, 67 ASA class I - II patients aged between 2-7 years old scheduled for elective inguinal hernia repair were allocated randomly into two groups after general anesthesia with same drugs in both groups. Group C received caudal block with 1 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% combined with 1 µg/kg clonidine, and group I received ilioinguinal- iliohypogastric nerve block with 0.3 ml /kg bupivacaine 0.25% combined with 1 µg/kg clonidine. Blood pressure and heart rate were documented every 5 minutes. Post-operative analgesia, analgesic use and side-effects were assessed during first 24 hours.
Results: In group C, 7 / 34 and in group I, 12/33 patients required post-operative analgesia (P = 0.174). Five patients (15.5%) in group I and one patient (2.94%) in group C had severe pain after operation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased during operation, but the differences between two groups were not significant (P = 0.176, P = 0.111). Heart rate changes between two groups were insignificant (P = 0.182).
Conclusion: It seems that in children, caudal epidural block and ilioinguinal – iliohypogastric nerve block using bupivacaine-clonidine have comparable effects on analgesia, severity of pain and hemodynamic changes during and after surgery on inguinal region.
Key words: Bupivacaine, caudal anaesthesia, children, clonidine, ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block