Insulin-mimetic activity of stevioside on diabetic rats: biochemical, molecular and histopathological study
Background: Stevioside has been used as a medication for reducing glucose levels in diabetic patients. The exact mode of action is still unclear. Therefore, the current study outlined the molecular and biological roles of stevioside in treatment of diabetes.
Materials and Methods: Diabetic male Wistar rats were treated with stevioside and metformin as a medication for diabetes rats for 4 weeks. Biochemical, molecular and histopathological studies have been done to evaluate the therapeutic effect of stevioside on minimizing levels of glucose and its related gene expression in diabetic rats.
Results: Stevioside administration normalized kidney and liver biomarkers, restored alterations in antioxidants activity and lipid profiles. Moreover, stevioside increased insulin and leptin secretion that are decreased in diabetic rats to the normal levels. For mRNA expression, stevioside up-regulated the expressions of PK and IRS-1 genes, which are down-regulated in diabetic rats, and was very effective in the down-regulation of CPT-1 mRNA expression. At the cellular levels; stevioside normalized the histopathological changes induced in pancreas.
Conclusion: Stevioside has insulin like effects and is useful for diabetic patient’s therapy.
Key words: Stevioside; Molecular effects; Insulin like activity, Diabetes.