Chemical composition of essential oil and evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Dorema ammoniacum d. Don. Oleo-gum-resin in rats
Background: Dorema Ammoniacum is a perennial herb which has been used in Persian Traditional Medicine for different indications, including gastrointestinal disorders and sciatica. Despite numerous medicinal uses, there is a lack of toxicological studies on Dorema Ammoniacum; therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate its possible toxic effects as well as the determining chemical composition of its essential oil.
Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity study was performed by administration of single increasing geometric doses of oleo-gum-resin solution (1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg) to Wistar rats. For sub-acute toxicity study, repeated doses of oleo-gum-resin solution (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg) were administered orally to rats for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, histopathological studies, hematological assessments, and biochemical parameters were performed.
Results: GC-MS was performed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. Acute toxicity results demonstrated no mortality, and the Median Lethal Dose (LD50) was greater than 5000 mg/kg. Sub-acute treatment did not show any significant changes in biochemical and hematological parameters at any doses compared to the control group. Histopathological analysis of the organs revealed varying effects. At the level of the liver, vacuolar degeneration and mild inflammation at 200 and 500 mg/kg doses were observed. At the level of kidney, congestion of glomeruli and a widening of the urinary space at 500mg/kg were observed compared to the control group. The principle components of the essential oil were Cuperene (14.31%) and β-Funebrene (12.74%).
Conclusion: The results suggest that the acute administration of the oleo-gum-resin of D. Ammoniacum is not accompanied with signs of toxicity; however, its administration over the long term might associate with renal toxicity and hepatotoxicity.
Keywords: gum ammoniac, toxicity, hematology, histopathology, biochemistry