Antihyperglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) seed extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its use in diabetes mellitus: a brief qualitative phytochemical and acute toxicity test on the extract.
The effects of ethanol extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) seeds on the blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats at different doses (2g/kg, 1g/kg, 0.5g/kg and 0.1g/kg) were studied. The hypoglycemic effect of extract was compared with that of the standard antidiabetic drug (glimepiride, 4mg/kg) single dose. The extract showed significant activity against the diabetic state induced by alloxan but the intensity of hypoglycemic effect varied from dose to dose. The most effective dose recognized was 1g/kg but that is still lower than the standard antidiabetic drug. No acute toxicity was observed for ethanol extract of T. foenum-graecum seed when it was administered orally at high dose level (3 g/kg body weight), which is higher than effective antihyperglycemic dose, and closely observed for 24 hrs for any mortality and next 10 days for any delayed toxic effects on gross behavioral activities. Phytochemical group tests were also accomplished and presence of alkaloids, steroids and carbohydrates were recognized in the extract.
Key words: alloxan, hypoglycemic effect, toxicity, phytochemical test, alkaloid