Cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Perspectives and challenges
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is associated with elevated blood glucose level, abnormal abdominal fat deposition, insulin resistance and a number of complications including embryopathy, cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, neuropathy, microangiopathy and retinopathy. Complications extending to the central nervous system may have a deteriorating effect on mental health including a decline in cognitive functioning. This could be a reason for depression, lack of compliance towards medication/treatment, and the inability of patients to meet the day-‐to-‐day management demands of the disease. Due to the high metabolic demand for energy in the brain, perturbations in glucose metabolism can noticeably impact cognitive performance. This review discusses and enlightens on the factors contributing to cognitive impairment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. An understanding of the mechanisms of diabetes-‐related cognitive impairment and the resulting behaviors of patients can help healthcare professionals implement treatments to significantly improve health status and quality of life of patients with diabetes.
KEYWORDS: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Cognitive Impairment and Brain Function; Insulin and Brain Function; Diabetes Therapeutic Drugs and Compliance; Depression and Alzheimer’s Disease; Neuropsychopharmacology of Diabetes; Functional Foods and Human Diet; Quality of Life and Wellness