Clinico-Electroencephalography Pattern and Determinant of 2-year Seizure Control in Patients with Complex Partial Seizure Disorder in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria
Background: Complex partial seizures (CPS) may present with milder symptoms mimicking normal function of an adult person making the diagnosis delayed or often missed. There is a need for an in-depth training in epileptology to understand the various pattern of electro-clinical presentation of CPS. Ability to predict seizure control on first diagnosis can be very useful in the management of patients with CPS. However, there is a paucity of data on CPS in North-western Nigeria.
Aim: This study aimed to describe the clinical and EEG characteristics of CPS and evaluate independent determinant of 2-year seizure control among adults with partial epilepsy in Kano, North-western Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Out of all patients diagnosed with epilepsy (PWE) at the adult neurology clinic of two tertiary hospitals in Kano over a period of 4½ years, those with CPS were prospectively studied. Diagnosis of CPS was based on both clinical and EEG findings. Patients were followed-up for a minimum period of 2-year to determine their seizure control status. Data were analyzed using STATA version 10.
Results: Total of 158 (105 males, 53 females) were enrolled. Their age ranged between 15 and 85 (median = 30.5) years. Sixty six (66/158,41.7%) had aura and 64 of them (64/158, 41.1%) had automatism. The most common aura and automatism were abnormal epigastric sensation and oro-alimentary respectively. Twenty eight (28/158, 18%) had associated behavioral manifestations. EEG abnormality was recorded in 56 (56/158, 53.9%). Adequate seizure control was achieved in 55% (70/128) on anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Duration of epilepsy, before the commencement of AEDs was identified as an independent determinant of 2-year seizure control.
Conclusion: Abnormal epigastric sensation and oroalimentary automatism were the most common clinical complaint. Duration epilepsy over 3 years or less was identified as an independent predictor of 2-year seizure control.
Keywords: Complex partial, Predictor, Seizure, Seizure control