Pattern of medical admissions at Enugu state university of science and technology teaching hospital: a 5 year review
Background: Rapid urbanization and changing lifestyle have modified the profile and pattern of various medical disorders in many Nigerian communities. Surveys of medical admissions into various Nigerian health institutions show an increasing burden of non‑communicable diseases in our communities.
Aim: To determine the profile and pattern of medical cases admitted and their outcome in a new tertiary medical institution in South East Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A review of medical admissions into the Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital (ESUTTH), Enugu, Nigeria over 5 years between January 1, 2006 and December 30, 2010 was undertaken. Morbidity and mortality data were obtained from ward registers and subsequently medical record registers. Classifications of medical disorders were grouped using ICD 10 coding system.
Results: A total of 3,865 case records were analyzed. Males were 2,312/3,865 (59.6%) and females 1,660/3,865 (40.2%). The age range was 14‑105 years with a mean age of 54.3 (18.1) years. The 4 commonest causes of medical ward admissions were neurological disorders‑850/3,865 (22%), endocrine disorders‑735/3,865 (19.1%), cardiovascular disorders‑718/3,865 (18.5%) and infectious diseases‑604/3,865 (15.6%). The diseases encountered most were diabetes mellitus‑735/3,865 (19.1%), hypertension/congestive cardiac failure‑703/3,865 (18.2%), strokes‑614/3,865 (15.9%) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS‑503 (13.1%). The overall mortality was 766/3,865 (19.8%) men‑467/2,312 (20.2%); women‑299/2,312 (19.3%). Strokes accounted for most of the deaths‑171/766 (22.3%) followed by HIV/AIDS 127/766 (16.6%). Hypertension/cardiac failure and diabetes each accounted for 116/766 (15.1%) of all deaths. Case fatality rates for strokes and HIV/AIDS were the highest (171/614 (27.9%) and 127/503 (25.2%) respectively). Mortality rate was highest in the above 70 years age group.
Conclusion: Non‑communicable disorders are the commonest causes of medical ward admission in this tertiary institution. Efforts aimed at primary prevention will help to reduce the burden of these disorders in the community.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disorders, Human immunodeficiency virus, Medical ward admissions, Neurological disorders, Nigeria