Changing Pattern of Bacteriuria among Asymptomatic Secondary School Adolescents within Enugu South East Nigeria
Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the infections that could lead to chronic kidney disease. Most of the offending isolates are usually Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Adolescent age groups are a special group of individuals who indulge in some risk behavior that could predispose them to urinary tract infections with possible mixed flora.
Aim: The aim was to determine the burden of Gram.positive significant bacteriuria among adolescents in Enugu.
Subjects and Methods: A survey of 628 adolescents attending secondary
schools in Enugu was studied. Information on sociodemographic profile was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Clean-catch urine sample was collected using a sterile boric acid bottle, and this was cultured in both anaerobic and aerobic media. Significant isolates were Gram-stained in order to determine their characteristics. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0.(Chicago Illinois USA). Results: There were 324 females and 304 males. Significant bacteria growth was identified in 61 samples giving a prevalence rate of 9.7% (61/628). Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 77.1% (47/61) of samples, while Gram-negative
bacteria were isolated in 22.9% (14/61) of samples. Staphylococcus saprophyticus was the most common Gram-positive organism isolated this consists 38.3% (18/47) while E. coli was the most common Gram.negative bacteria isolated comprising 64.2% (9/14). Other Gram-positive bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus auerus, Staphylococcus epididimis. All isolated bacteria were more common in females 44/61 (72.1%) than males 17/61 (27.9%).
Conclusion: Gram-positive bacteriuria is prevalent among secondary school adolescents, and S. saprophyticus is the most common Gram-positive organism implicated. Further studies should be undertaken to determine the risk factors and possible sensitivity pattern among the age group.
Keywords: Adolescents, Bacteriuria, Urinary tract infection