Determinants and Management Outcomes of Pelvic Organ Prolapse in a Low Resource Setting
Background: The last decade has seen significant progress in understanding of the pathophysiology, anatomy and management modalities of pelvic organ prolapse. A review of the way we manage this entity in a low resource setting has become necessary.
Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the incidence, risk factors and management modalities of pelvic organ prolapse.
Subjects and Methods: A 5-year cross-sectional study with retrospective
data collection of women who attended the gynecologic clinic in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, south.east Nigeria and were diagnosed of pelvic organ prolapse was made. Proforma was initially used for data collection before transfer to Epi-info 2008 (v 3.5.1; Epi Info, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA) software.
Results: There were 199 cases of pelvic organ prolapse, out of a total gynecologic clinic attendance of 3082, thus giving an incidence of 6.5%. The mean age was 55.5 (15.9) years with a significant association between prolapse and advanced age (P < 0.001). The age range was 22-80 years. The leading determinants were menopause, advanced age, multiparity, chronic increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and prolonged labor. Out of the 147 patients with uterine prolapse, majority, 60.5% (89/147) had third degree prolapse. Vaginal hysterectomy with pelvic floor repair
was the most common surgery performed. The average duration of hospital stay following surgery was 6.8 (2.9) days and the most common complication was urinary tract infection, 13.5% (27/199). The recurrence rate was 13.5% (27/199). Most of the patients who presented initially with pelvic organ prolapse were lost to follow-up.
Conclusion: The incidence of pelvic organ prolapse in this study was 6.5% and the leading determinants of pelvic organ prolapse were multiparity, menopause, chronic increase in IAP and advanced age. Most were lost to
follow-up and a lesser proportion was offered conservative management. Early presentation of women is necessary so that conservative management could be offered if feasible.
Keywords: Determinants, Management outcome, Pelvic organ prolapse