Histopathological Study of Placentae in Low Birth Weight Babies in India
Background: The antenatal health-care given to pregnant women has great influence on the rates of perinatal death and morbidity. Amongst the different causes of perinatal mortality, low birth weight (LBW) is the single most significant factor therefore placenta from all the LBW babies (LBWB) should be examined routinely to find out the likely cause.
Aims: The aims of this study were to assess the pathological changes in the placenta in association with LBWB.
Materials and Methods: This is a Case control study performed at Medical College Allahabad,( MLN) India. In this study, 90 placentae were included. 30 placentae from full-term vaginally delivered babies, weighing more than 2500 g were included as the control group. 60 placentae belonged to babies whose birth weight was less than 2500 g (LBW). Weight of the baby was taken within the 1st h of birth and Apgar score was noted. Gross and microscopic examination of placentae was done. Statistical correlation of was carried out between them by using SPSS 18 version. Chi-square test with or without yate’s correction was used as and when required. P < 0.05 was taken as critical level of significance.
Results: Placenta was circum-marginal in both groups. Attachment of cord was mainly central in the control group 90% (27/30), whereas eccentric attachment was prominent in patient group 66.67% (40/60). The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Calcification and sub-chorionic fibrin deposition was seen in significantly higher numbers of placentae from patients than controls (P < 0.01) infarction and meconium staining were seen in placentae from patients only. Histologically placental ischemia, infarction and calcification were seen in significantly higher number of patients (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and < 0.01 respectively). Fibrinoid necrosis, stromal fibrosis, placental dysmaturity and obstructive vasculopathy were seen in placentae from patients only.
Conclusion: Placental pathology among LBW infants was high in comparison to control group. The findings suggest that chronic ischemia and associated secondary changes probably lead to improper perfusion and LBWB.
Keywords: Calcification, Fibrinoid necrosis, Infarction, Intrauterine growth restriction, Low birth weight, Stromal fibrosis