Observations on the Current Bacteriological Profile of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media in South Eastern Nigeria
Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a disease well‑known for its recurrence and persistence despite treatment. The situation is compounded by the increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents by bacteria these days.
Aim: This study was carried out to examine the current local bacteriological profile of CSOM and to compare the profile of either ear in bilaterally discharging ears.
Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective analysis of ear swab cultures from 133 unilateral and 73 bilateral consecutive tubotympanic CSOM cases seen at the Ear‑Nose‑Throat clinics of a referral health institution during a 4 year period ending 2013. Sensitivities to eight locally available antibiotics were analyzed. Aerobic bacterial isolates were analyzed separately for the unilateral and bilateral cases. Comparison was made between the ears in the bilateral cases.
Results: We analyzed 279 ear swab culture results from 206 patients with age ranging from 5 months to 86 years and a mean of 21.3 (19.5) years. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common isolated bacteria (44% [109/250]) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (17% [42/250]), and Proteus Mirabilis (15% [38/250]). The most and least sensitive bacteria were Klebsiella Spp and Escherichia Coli, respectively. The most effective antibiotics were gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. The two ears differ significantly in the rates of isolation of S. aureus and E. coli (P = 0.01 and P = 0.04, respectively).
Conclusion: Pseudomonas is the most common bacteria involved in CSOM in this part of the country. Ciprofloxacin as ear drops is recommended as first‑line drug in the management of active CSOM as it is cheap, less ototoxic, and locally available. Separate ear swab culture should be obtained in bilateral CSOM.
Keywords: Bilateral, Chronic, Culture and sensitivity, Otitis Media, Pseudomonas