Lipid and Some Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Assessment in a Rural Community in Eastern Nigeria
Background: Continuous re‑evaluation of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (cardiovascular diseases [CVDs]) in developing nations is imperative as it lays foundation for early preventive/intervention measures at grass root level to improve/prevent CVD morbidity and mortality in those nations where health indices still score below the standard.
Aim: The aim was to assess CVD risk factors as a continuous re‑evaluation of these may underscore the need for early intervention measures at grass root level.
Subjects and Methods: A total of 257 apparently healthy inhabitants aged 18–85 years were recruited in a rural community in South Eastern Nigeria by convenient sampling. Blood pressure, waist circumference and blood lipid analysis were done procedurally and data analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software.
Results: The males were older (59.41 [5.22]) than the females (53.31 [16.90]). 69.2% (133/192) were low level farmers, retirees and dependents. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and risk predictive index were higher in females while triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein and very LDL (VLDL) were higher in males. The middle aged and elderly respectively had higher TG and VLDL compared to the young. Aside hypertriglyceridemia, all lipid abnormalities were higher in females than males both singly (high TC: 28.9% [35/121] vs. 16.9% [12/71]; high LDL cholesterol: 52.0% [63/121] vs. 31.0% [22/71]) and in combination hypercholesterolemia with hypertriglyceridemia (42.9% [52/121] vs. 36.6% [26/71]). “Multiple risk factors” also occurred more in females with seeming further increase in older age.
Conclusion: The chances of a female having CVD after menopause seemed to outweigh that of the male. CVD preventive measures should be focused at the primary/community level as a means to curtailing the increasing morbidity and eventual mortality from CVDs.
Keywords: Blood pressure, Homogenous community, Lipids, Waist circumference