Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women: Shedding more light on a complex relationship
Background: The association between depression, anxiety, and stress among Arab menopause and postmenopausal women have been explored in detailed.
Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between depression, anxiety, and stress in menopausal and postmenopausal women and shedding more light on a complex relationship.
Subjects and Methods: A cross‑sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian women at the primary health care centers in Qatar. A representative sample of 1468 women aged 45–65 years were approached during July 2012 and May 2014 and 1101 women agreed to participate (75.0%) and responded to the study. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21. Data on body mass index (BMI), clinical and other parameters were used. Univariate, multivariate, and matrix correlation analysis were performed for statistical analysis.
Results: A total of 1101 women agreed to participate after informed consent was obtained. The mean age and standard deviation (SD) of the menopausal age were 49.55 (3.12), the mean and SD of postmenopausal age was 58.08 (3.26) (P < 0.001). There were statistically significant differences between menopausal stages with regards to age, ethnicity, educational status, occupation status, and place of living. Furthermore, there were statistically significant differences between menopausal stages with regards to BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), Vitamin D deficiency, and diseases. Depression and anxiety were more common among postmenopause women. Furthermore, there were no differences between the groups regarding the frequency of certain levels of stress among menopause and postmenopause. The multivariate regression analyses revealed that age in years, diastolic BP, consanguinity, regular exercise were a predictor for depression. Meanwhile, diastolic BP, occupation, and physical activity considered the main risk factors for anxiety. Furthermore, age in years, occupation, and sheesha smoking habits were considered as the main risk factors associated with stress.
Conclusion: A large number of factors were associated with experiencing menopausal and psycho‑social problems and which had negative effects on the quality of life among Arabian women. Depression, anxiety, and stress should be considered as important risk factors for osteoporosis.
Keywords: Anxiety, Complex relationship, Depression, Diseases, Menopause, Physical activity, Postmenopausal, Protective factors, Stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21)