Lipid Profile of Anti Retroviral Treatment Naive HIV Infected Patients in Jos, Nigeria
Africa, Dyslipidemia, Human immunodeficiency virus, Lipid profile
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment are associated with lipid abnormalities. Data on lipid profile of treatment.naive HIV.infected patients in Nigeria are limited, and available studies did not exclude the role of major host.related risk factors for dyslipidemia.
Aim: We assessed the lipid profile of normotensive, non.diabetic, and non.obese treatment.naive HIV.infected patients to identify their abnormalities in comparison with age. and sex.matched HIV.negative control.
Subjects and Methods: One hundred and six
normotensive, non.diabetic, and non.obese HIV positive patients and 98 age.and sex.matched HIV.negative controls had lipid profile estimation in the fasting state. The CD4+ cell count
of the HIV.infected patients was also quantified. Results: The median (IQR) triglyceride was significantly higher in HIV.positive patients than in the controls [1.75 (1.30-2.40) mmol/L
vs. 1.55 (1.30-1.90) mmol/L, P = 0.01]. HIV.positive patients also had significantly lower mean total cholesterol, TC [4.18 (1.04) mmol/L vs. 4.64 (1.01) mmol/L, P = 0.001] and
HDL.C [1.17 (0.35) mmol/L vs. 1.29 (0.43) mmol/L, P = 0.03]. The mean LDL.C [2.20 (0.87) mmol/L vs. 2.19 (0.75) mmol/L, P = 0.97] and TC/HDL.C ratio [3.95 (1.42) vs. 3.84 (1.14)
mmol/L, P = 0.52] were similar between the HIV.positive patients and controls. The HIV.infected patients had a significantly higher proportion of subjects with low HDL.C [36.8%
(39/106) vs. 23.5% (23/98), P = 0.04] and hypertriglyceridemia [31.1% (33/106) vs. 11.2% (11/98), P = 0.001] while the controls had significantly higher proportion of subjects with
hypercholesterolemia [22.4% (22/98) vs. 10.4% (11/106), P = 0.02]. Lower HDL.C was associated with CD4+ cell count < 200 cells/ƒÊL (P = 0.02).
Conclusion: Lipid abnormalities are common in treatment.naive HIV.infected patients even in the absence of major host.related risk factors for dyslipidemia. HIV.infected patients should, therefore, be routinely screened for lipid disorders before commencement of anti.retroviral therapy.
Keywords: Africa, Dyslipidemia, Human immunodeficiency virus, Lipid profile
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