The Role of Complications of Community Acquired Pneumonia on the Outcome of the Illness: A Prospective Observational Study in a Tertiary Institution in Eastern Nigeria
Background: Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in our environment. Recent data on the role of complications on outcome of CAP are not readily available in Nigeria.
Aim: This study aims to analyze the influence of complications on the outcome of CAP in a tertiary health center in Eastern Nigeria.
Subjects and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out on 80 patients with CAP, who met the inclusion criteria. Data relating to their age, gender, and clinical details; severity assessment using CURB 65 (C‑ confusion, Serum urea > 7mmol/L, R‑respiratory rate > 30, B‑systolic BP > 90 and diastolic BP ≤ 60, age > 65 years.) scoring system, laboratory results, complications, and outcome (mortality) were collected. The statistical package used for data analysis is SPSS version 17.0 (Chicago IL USA). Data were presented in tables and charts. Sample means, standard deviation, and Chi‑square test were used for statistical significance. Severity was assessed using CURB65 scoring system. Outcome of interest was 30 day mortality. In all P value of 0.05 was regarded as significant.
Results: Eighty patients were recruited for the study, 39 males and 41 females; giving male:female ratio of 1:1.05. The mean age range was 56 (18.0) years. A total of 37 patients were managed as out‑patients while 43 were managed as in‑patients. Complications were observed in 25 patients. Severe hemodynamic changes and pleural effusion 8/25 (32%) were the most common complications observed. Total mortality was 12/80 (15%). Mortality was higher in in‑patients than out‑patients however, this was not statistically significant. Mortality in those with complications was 6/25 (24%) compared to 6/55 (11%) in those without complications (P = 0.10).
Conclusion: Mortality rate in patients with CAP though higher in patients with complications numerically were not found to be significantly higher than in those without complications. We posit that other factors like presence of higher severity assessment scores (CURB‑65 scores) and co‑morbidities may be more important predictors of mortality in CAP patients and should be further studied.
Keywords: Community acquired pneumonia, Complications, Eastern Nigeria, Mortality, Outcome