Risk factors for peritoneal dialysis catheter failure in children
Background Peritoneal dialysis catheter (PDC) failure still remains a common clinical problem in pediatric patients despite advancements in catheter placement and dialysis techniques. Our aim was to determine the risk factors that may lead to PDC failure, especially those factors that could be potentially modified to minimize PDC failures.
Patients and methods This study was designed as a retrospective chart review of 31 patients less than 12 years of age who had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on whom a total of 54 operative PDC placements were carried out at the tertiary Children’s Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January 2007 to December 2010. The data included patient demographics and perioperative and operative variables.
Results Fifty-four PDCs were inserted in 31 pediatric patients with ESRD, of whom 17 (55%) were boys and 14 (45%) were girls. Young age showed a statistically significant effect on PDC failure [1.8 (± 5) vs. 5 (± 7.8), P = 0.007], whereas weight did not (P = 0.085). Five types of PDCs were used, which showed significant association with PDC failure (P =0.009). Supraumbilical paramedian abdominal entry incisions were used in 49 (90.7%) patients without peritoneal leakage in any case. Nonsimultaneous omentectomy and upward PDC exit site orientation showed significant association with PDC failure (Pr0.001). The causes of PDC failure included idiopathic peritonitis in 13 (56.5%), PDC occlusion by omentum in five (21.7%), PDC malposition in four (17.4%) patients, and PDC leakage in one (4.4%) patient. Peritonitis showed a high statistical significance in PDC failure with P value of less than 0.001. The serum albumin level at the time of PDC insertion was not statistically significant in terms of PDC failure (P = 0.40) but had a high association with idiopathic peritonitis.
Conclusion Our study provides some recommendations to minimize PDC failures that include improvement of patients’ nutritional status, use of a swan-neck double-cuffed catheter, paramedian abdominal entry incision, simultaneous omentectomy, downward orientation of exit site, and use of an up-to-date technique by a dedicated team for proper use of PDC. However, prospective studies possibly on a multicentric basis are necessary to standardize the best PDC insertion and maintenance techniques to minimize PDC failures and improve the quality of life for children with ESRD.
Keywords: end-stage renal disease, pediatric patients, peritoneal dialysis, tenckhoff catheter