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Animal Research International

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Immunoregulatory properties of n-hexane extract of Osmundastrum cinnamomeum in treatment of Plasmodium berghei infection in mice

Olubukola Abibat Owolodun, Esther Fawole, Olubunmi Atolani, Abass Toba Anifowoshe, Olugbenga Akinola

Abstract


Malaria control is threatened by the emergence of drug-resistant parasites and there is an urgent need for the development of antimalarial agents with novel mechanisms of actions. This study evaluated the anti-plasmodial and immune-modulatory activities of N-hexane leaf extract of Osmundastrum cinnamomeum in a mice model. Chloroquineresistant Plasmodium berghei infected mice were separated into six treatment groups and treated orally with 0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of extract, water and combination of dihydroartemisinin/ piperaquine (DHAP), respectively. Parasitological activities and survival rates were monitored for 30 days’ post infection. Phytochemical composition of O. cinnamomeum was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Leaf extract of O. cinnamomeum is rich in terpenoids, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The extract showed significant (p<0.05) antiplasmodial effect in the treated groups relative to parasitemia (23.68 %) in the untreated control on day 13. Parasitaemia was significantly higher in the DHAP group (9.83 %) on day 30 compared to extract treatment of 50 mg/kg (2.09 %) and 100 mg/kg (1.83 %). Significantly low level of TNF-α (28.82 pg/ml) and conversely, high expression of IL-10 (79.04 pg/ml) were recorded in the 50 mg/kg test group. There was a significantly higher survival rate of animals in the same group (50 mg/kg). In conclusion O. cinnamomeum demonstrated potential activity to suppress parasite and also prime the immune system against malaria infection in mice. Therefore, O. cinnamomeum may be used as a potential adjunctive therapy in the treatment of malaria infection.

Keywords: Osmundastrum cinnamomeum, Plasmodium berghei, Immunomodulation, Inflammatory cytokines




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