Effects of fermentation on the nutritional status of Crescentia cujete L. seed and its potentiality as aqua feedstuff
The effects of fermentation on the proximate and anti-nutrient composition of Crescentia cujete seeds were investigated. Two methods of fermentation were employed; the traditional fermentation (TF) and gut-filtrate treated fermentation (GFTF). Proximate and anti-nutrient contents were determined using standard procedures. Anti-nutrients tested for were alkaloids, phytate, tannins, saponins and flavonoids. All proximate contents varied significantly (p<0.05), TF fermented C. cujete seeds had the highest protein (18.73 %) and crude fibre (31.23 %) contents. Fermentation significantly increased all proximate compositions except for nitrogen free extracts. A 26.15 % decrease in Nitrogen free extract was effected by TF while, a 30.26 % decrease was effected by GFTF. Saponin and flavonoid was increased appreciably by TF (47.61 and 95.44 %, respectively) and GFTF (82.63 and 92.07 %, respectively). Fermentation effected appreciable reduction in alkaloid and phytate contents; 21.56 and 75.00 %, respectively for TF and 55.88 and 67.85 % respectively for GFTF. Fermenting C. cujete seeds is advocated for owing to its ability to significantly enhance (p<0.05) crude protein by 79.75 and 72.74 % for TF and GFTF respectively and lipid by 7.82 and 17.41 % for TF and GFTF respectively. Crescentia cujete seeds had high contents of protein, carbohydrate and lipids which suggest that they can serve as a good source of crude protein and energy for livestock and animal production, not forgetting the seed’s medicinal potentials due to their high composition of phytochemicals.
Keywords: Anti-nutrients, Crescentia cujete, Fermentation, Proximate composition