Estimation of the technical and scale efficiencies of quail production: a strategy toward the provision of sustainable animal protein in Oyo and Kwara States of Nigeria
Small scale poultry production plays a major role in bridging the protein deficit and sustain rural livelihood in Nigeria. A study was conducted to estimate the technical and scale efficiencies of quail (Cortunix coturnix japonica) production a strategy toward the provision of sustainable animal protein in Nigerian diets. Data Envelope Analysis (DEA) was used to sieve efficient and inefficient quail farmers and established optimize energy. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire administered to 193 quail farmers comprising of 78 battery cage system (BCS) and 115 deep litter system (DLS) operators using a multi-stage random sampling procedure. The result showed that feed, fuels and electricity gulps 63.38, 24.53 and 7.76 % of the total energy input in BCS production unit and equally constituted 65.16, 23.97 and 5.32 % in the DLS production unit. Both BCS (65.71 %) and DLS (67.90 %) used more renewable energy compared with non-renewable component. The net energy of both quail production units were positive, hence energy were gained. The results revealed that the total energy use that could be saved by converting the present units to optimal conditions were 7.80 and 6.76 % for BCS and DLS respectively. The BCS farms thrive better compared with DLS considering the results of the three efficiency parameters. The renewable energy inputs usage must be sustain and if possible increase in both sectors in order to improve the low energy productivity and increase energy output and invariably return to quail farming.
Keywords: Quail chick farmers, Battery cage system, Deep litter system, Renewable energy, Pure technical efficiency