Effects of artemisinin-based combination therapy on histopathology of the liver, kidney and spleen of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei
Malaria has remained one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in most developing countries. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) had been adopted for the management of the disease. This study evaluated the effects of therapeutic doses of artesunate + amodiaquine and dihydroartemisnin + piperaquine on the liver, kidney and spleen of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Sixty adult mice of eight weeks old with average weight of 22.5 ± 5.5 g were randomly divided into six groups of ten animals each. Plasmodium berghei was inoculated into the mice and observed for seven days, followed by three days oral administration of therapeutic doses of artesunate + amodiaquine (A&A) and dihydroartemisinin + piperaquine (D&P). Control groups were given water for the same period. Histopathology results revealed; periportal inflammatory cells, haemopoietic precursor cells, haemozoin pigmentation in the liver of the infected untreated and treated groups. The spleen showed haemozoin pigments, loss of the typical structure of the germinal centre, apoptotic lymphocytes with tinged macrophages, megakaryocytes and haemopoietic precursor cells in the infected untreated and treated groups. Inflammation of the renal pelvis was found in the kidney of the infected untreated group and the group treated with dihydroartemisinin + piperaquine. Cytoplasmic vacuolation was found in the liver after 28 days follow-up. Malaria infection and treatment with artesunate + amodiaquine (A&A) and dihydroartemisinin + piperaquine caused reversible damages to the liver, spleen and kidney.
Keywords: Malaria, Artemisinin, Liver, Spleen, Kidney, Plasmodium berghei