Bovine Mastitis in Selected Districts of Borena Zone, Southern Ethiopia
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 397 lactating Boran cows in pastoral areas of Borana Zone, Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of mastitis, major causes and associated risk factors of mastitis using California mastitis test and bacteriology. The study showed an overall prevalence of 70.8%; out of which 12.4% were clinical and 58.4% sub-clinical mastitis. Udder quarter level positivity was 49.6% while as much as 13.5% the teats were blind. There was a highly significant difference (p=0.00) between age, parity, and lactation stage groups. The prevalence of mastitis was also significantly higher (p=0.00) among animals with tick infestation and those with history of previous exposure to mastitis compared to those without. The presence of udder and teat injury also significantly influenced (p<0.05) the prevalence of mastitis. The most frequently isolated bacterial pathogens were Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species accounting for 37.0% (104/281) and 25.9% (73/281), respectively. Absence of hygienic measures during milking and poor environmental conditions has probably contributed to the highest prevalence of the subclinical form. The pastorals are almost exclusively dependent on milk for food. The economic impact is hence several fold because of the very prevalence of the disease itself and its subclinical presentation which makes identification and treatment very difficult by owners.
Keywords: Boran cows, Ethiopia, Mastitis, Pastorals, Prevalence