Epizootiology of Newcastle disease in two live bird markets in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria
Newcastle disease (ND) is a devastating viral disease of poultry worldwide. This study was therefore undertaken to understand the role of live bird markets (LBMs) in the epizootiology of ND in Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to poultry dealers and cloacal swab sampling of live birds in two LBMs in Ibadan was done. Three hundred pooled swab samples were collected from five different apparently healthy bird species sold in the markets over a period of one month. Virus isolation was performed in embryonated chicken eggs using the cloacal swab samples. Twenty one isolates of ND virus were obtained from four of the five bird species. Isolation rates of 24.4%, 20.0%, 18.8%, and 18.5% were obtained from chickens, ducks, guinea fowls, and pigeons respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the ND virus isolation rates from the different bird species. Market level isolation rates of 16.3% and 25.5% were found in Molete and Shasha respectively which was also not statistically different (p > 0.05). The results show that LBMs are important sources of transmission and threat of NDV to the commercial and backyard poultry farms in Nigeria. There is therefore need for surveillance for ND virus and effective control strategies against its continuous circulation in the country.
Keywords: Newcastle Disease, Live Bird Markets, Virus Isolation, Epizootiology, Ibadan Nigeria