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Synthesis of biologically active xanthene, chromene, thiazole, thiophene, pyrazole, and isoxazole derivatives from camphor

Ensaf Sultan Alwan
Rafat Milad Mohareb


ABSTRACT. Xanthene, chromene, thiazole, thiophene, pyrazole, and isoxazole derivatives were synthesized from camphor-D monoterpene using multi-component reactions. Camphor has anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties. It is also used to mitigate pain, treat skin diseases, and improve respiratory functions. In this research, we focus on the effectiveness of the produced compounds from the biologically active camphor. The produced compounds were formed according to various reactions such as a Knoevenagel condensation, Michael adduct, Gewald reaction, a nucleophilic attack, substitution, addition, elimination and cyclization reactions. Furthermore, the novel produced compounds have been tested towards the six cancer cell lines namely A549, MKN-45, U87MG, HT-29, H460 and SMMC-772. Compounds 5, 11, 15b, 16, 25b and 27b displayed the highest inhibitions compounds toward the mentioned cancer cell lines. In addition, compounds 3, 13, 15a, 22a, 27a and 28 showed moderate inhibitory effects against the cancer cell lines.

KEY WORDS: Camphor, Xanthenes, Pyrimidine, Heterocyclic, Anti-cancer

Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2023, 37(6), 1539-1552. 

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eISSN: 1726-801X
print ISSN: 1011-3924