Botswana Journal of Technology

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Social impacts of rural-urban transformation

D Mhlaba, R Awuor-Hayangah


The crux of this paper is on sociological aspects of the transition of people from rural to urban living environment. It is strongly acknowledged that the traditional rural settlements of indigenous African communities have fallen victims of historical underdevelopment, hence the need for accelerated development of their living environment. This paper argues that physical migration of people to urban areas has not yielded appropriate answers to the cultural needs of individuals and communities. The result of such urban settlements as those attempted in South Africa’s Apartheid concept of Black townships, hostels and the recent Reconstruction and Development Programme has compromised the sociological integrity of the people. Ignoring cultural values of spatial use has tended to force social and cultural reorientation into their new living environment. However, this paperdoes not attempt to explore or provide planning solutions, as those have to be specific to particular geographical and cultural communities.

Keywords:Rural-Urban Transformation, Cultural principles, Social behaviour, Emotional connection

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