Evaluation of metabolic syndrome in undergraduate students at the University of Dschang
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as obesity, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose; it increases morbidity and mortality of CVD. MetS affects both adults and youths, leading to an impaired quality of life and a lowering of life expectancy. This study aimed to assess various aspects of metabolic syndrome, in undergraduate students at the University of Dschang. A questionnaire was distributed to 307 students of both sex; 203 meeting inclusion criteria were selected for anthropometric and blood pressure measurements followed by blood sample collection, for the dosage of biochemical markers (blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceridemia, and C-reactive protein). Results indicate that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome within the study population was 11.33 %. It has a significant predominance among obese and overweight patients (P˂0.05), compared to normal ones. Elevated blood pressure (OR= 23.4) and low HDL cholesterol levels (OR= 20.4) appeared to be the most determinant components of metabolic syndrome in the study population. We found an increase of metabolic syndrome prevalence with frequent consumption (3 to 4 times per week) of ‘‘Koki’’ (P=0.023), ‘‘Achu’’ (P=0.01), ‘’Corn couscous’’ (P=0.012), Salads (P=0.031), ‘‘Ndolè’’ (P=0.039) and pork (P=0.04). On the contrary, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome decreases significantly, with frequent consumption of green vegetables (P=0.016). Metabolic syndrome is present in undergraduate students of the University of Dschang, as a consequence of excess fat storage. Its main features are elevated blood pressure and low HDL-cholesterol level.
Keywords: Obesity; Metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular risk factor; students; University of Dschang