A cluster randomized controlled trial of the non-pneumatic anti-shock garment for obstetric haemorrhage: sub-analysis of the Zimbabwean Arm
Objectives: To determine whether earlier application of the Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) at clinic level compared to the referral hospital level reduces maternal morbidity and mortality and recovery time from shock due to severe Obstetric Haemorrhage (OH) and to determine the safety of the NASG when applied at clinic level.
Design: A cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)
Setting: Harare and Parirenyatwa Referral Hospitals (RH) in Harare and the twelve Harare City Council clinics that offer maternity care.
Subjects: Women who had suffered severe OH at clinic level and were being transferred to a Referral Hospital (RH).
Interventions: The clinics were randomized into two groups. In the early NASG group eligible women were given the standard management for OH and had the NASG applied at the clinic level before transport to RH. In the control group, eligible women were given the standard management for OH at the clinic level, transferred to the RH, and received the NASG at the RH. All women received equivalent OH/hypovolemic shock management at the RH.
Main Outcome Measures: The main outcome measures were maternal mortality and morbidity, blood loss, recovery from shock and the occurrence of side effects whilst in the NASG.
Results: There were few maternal deaths and morbidities, and no statistically significant differences between the two groups were noted. Women in the early NASG group spent a statistically significant shorter time in the NASG at referral hospital level (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.52 - 0.79, p < 0.001) and had a non-significant 40% faster recovery from shock (HR 1.39; 95% CI 0.98-1.97, p=0.07). There were no differences in reported side effects.
Conclusion: Earlier NASG application at the clinic level was associated with faster recovery from shock in women who had suffered severe OH and appears safe to use.