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East African Medical Journal

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Ophthalmoplegia, Dysphonia and Tetraparesis Due to Guillain-Barre's Syndrome in Pregnant at 14 Weeks of Gestation: Case Report

PW Atipo-Tsiba, C Itoua, FAI Odzili, B Diatewa

Abstract


Guillain-Barre’s syndrome (GBS) or inflammatory/post-infectious acute polyradiculoneuropathy is due to  demyelination of nerves, causing a progressive paresis or paralysis. It usually begins in the legs and  sometimes goes up to the respiratory muscles and cranial nerves. The exact mechanism of GBS occurrance is still unclear. An autoimmune disease is the assumption with the largest consensus to date. Autoantibodies  related to a viral or bacterial infection in the days or weeks before the onset of symptoms damage the myelin sheaths of nerve fibers. These infections can range from a simple cold with sore throat to gastrointestinal disorders. In very rare cases, it is also recognised that the use of some drugs (streptokinase, Captopril ...) can cause GBS. The gestation is a relative immunological rest period in which autoimmune pathologies have, in their majority, a true clinical lull related to the acceptance of the embryo and the foetus by the woman's body. The onset of the GBS in the period is exceptional. We report a case of paralysis of the nerve VI  accompanied by dysphonia and tetraparesis due to GBS in a pregnant of 24 year old with 14 weeks of gestation.



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