Detection of Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA genotypes from stool specimen among infected and asymptomatic healthy individuals
Background: Helicobacter pylori(H. Pylori) is one of the most common pathogens affecting human kind, infecting more than 50% of the world's population. Invasive and non- invasive methods have been used to diagnose H. pylori infection. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been broadly and successfully used to detect Helicobacter pylori virulence genes in gastric biopsies and stool specimen due to its high sensitivity and specificity. Genotyping using H. pylori genes, the cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) and voculating cytotoxin gene A (vacA), offers one of the best options.
Objective: To determine if genotyping of H. pylori cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) and voculating cytotoxin gene A (vacA) virulence genes in infected patients as well as healthy individuals can be done from stool specimen.
Study selection: A Pubmed/Medline search was carried out using specific key words to retrieve all publications on genotyping of H. pylori cagA and vacA from stool specimen between year 2003 to 2012.
Data synthesis:Ten different studies from different locations fulfilled the selection criteria and were included in the study.
Results: This review summarises different protocol used to successfully detect H.pylori virulence genes cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) and voculating cytotoxin gene A (vacA) from faecal specimen by PCR from asymptomatic healthy individuals and infected people with Helicobacter pylori infection.
Conclusion: this review highlights the use of stool specimen as an alternative test for genotyping of H. pylori cagA and vacA virulence genes as it is non-invasive and easy to collect.